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Muscle Cramp and Muscle Spasms

Discover what causes muscle cramp, and prevent muscle cramps with these 4 key tips

by Brad Walker | Updated January 23, 2017

Muscle cramp and muscle spasms are an annoying condition that involves a sudden, involuntary contraction and tightening of a muscle that will not immediately relax.

If you suffer from muscle cramps or are seeking to prevent their occurrence it is important to follow the information in this article. In addition, adding a few simple stretches to your fitness program will also help. To get started on a safe and effective stretching routine that’s just right for you, check out the Ultimate Guide to Stretching & Flexibility.

muscle-cramp-and-spasmMuscle cramp and spasms can involve part or all of a muscle, or a number of muscles within a muscle group and although a spasm or cramp can occur in just about any muscle, the most common muscle groups affected are:

  • The lower leg and calf muscles.
  • The upper leg, including both the hamstrings and quadriceps.
  • The feet and hands.

Muscle cramps and spasms can range in intensity from a slight twitch to a severe, agonizing contraction. They can last anywhere from a few seconds to over 15 minutes and can usually be seen visibly by the way the muscle twitches and moves under the skin.

People who are at the greatest risk of muscle cramps and spasms are those who ill, overweight or unfit. Those who take drugs or certain medication, and those who live or work in excessive heat and humidity are also prone to cramping. Muscle cramps are also common among endurance athletes and people over 65 years of age who perform strenuous physical activity.

What Causes Muscle Cramp and Spasm?

There are a number of factors that contribute to muscle cramps and spasms, the main ones being:

  • Poor flexibility and tight muscles;
  • Muscle fatigue and overuse;
  • Dehydration; and
  • Electrolyte and mineral depletion.

A number of other factors include working or exercising in high heat and humidity, inadequate blood supply, injury or muscle strain and excessive use of alcohol, drugs and medication.

Treating Muscle Cramp and Spasm

Muscle cramps and spasms will usually go away on their own but there are a few important steps you can take to decrease the severity and duration of them.

  1. Stop the activity that triggered the cramp in the first place.
  2. Gently stretch the effected muscle or muscle group.
  3. Keep the effected areas moving with light activity and gentle massage.
  4. Continue to apply heat and massage to help promote blood flow.

4 Tips for Preventing Muscle Cramp and Spasm

arrow-right-blue One of the most useful things you can do to help prevent muscle cramps and spasms is to work on improving your overall general health and fitness. Improving your cardiovascular fitness will improve the delivery of blood to your muscles, which will ensure that they have adequate amounts of oxygen and nutrients to function properly.

arrow-right-blue Another important activity that is very effective in helping to prevent muscle cramp is ensuring adequate hydration and electrolyte replenishment. In general you should be consuming at least 8 to 10 glasses of filtered water a day and more if you’re involved in strenuous physical activity or live and work in high heat and humidity.

arrow-right-blue If you seem to be prone to muscle cramp and muscle spasms you should also look at increasing your intake of minerals and electrolytes. The minerals that are most important are Potassium, Sodium, Calcium and Magnesium. Adding a small amount of mineral salt to your cooking, (such as Celtic sea salt) will help to increase your intake of these important minerals.

arrow-right-blue The other key activity that will help to prevent muscle cramp and spasms is stretching. Keeping your muscles loose and flexible will help to stop them from tightening up and cramping. Be sure to stretch the muscles groups that are most prone to cramping both before and after exercise or strenuous physical activity.

The Big Book of Stretch RoutinesWhile the recommendations on this page are a good starting point, you'll get a lot more benefit when you include a wider variety of stretches and stretching routines.

Get over 150 of the best stretch routines to do away with injuries; increase your flexibility; improve your sporting performance; and become loose, limber and pain free.

There's a routine for every muscles group in your body, plus daily stretching routines to help prevent over 35 different injuries. Get your daily stretching routines here.

Brad Walker - AKA The Stretch CoachAbout the Author: Brad Walker is often referred to as the "Stretch Coach" and has even been called the Stretching Guru. Magazines such as Runners World, Bicycling, Triathlete, Swimming & Fitness, and Triathlon Sports have all featured his work. Amazon (author page) has listed his books on five Best-Seller lists. Google cites over 100,000 references to him and his work on the internet. And satisfied customers from 122 countries have sent 1,000's of verified customer reviews. If you want to know about stretching, flexibility or sports injury management, Brad Walker is the go-to-guy.

Disclaimer: The health and fitness information presented on this website is intended as an educational resource and is not intended as a substitute for proper medical advice. Please consult your physician or physical therapist before performing any of the exercises described on this website, particularly if you are pregnant, elderly or have any chronic or recurring muscle or joint pain.

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